Scandinavians Are The Earliest Europeans

Scientists have sequenced a 37,000-year-old genome. The results show that present-day Scandinavians are the closest living relatives to the first people in Europe.

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Professor Eske Willerslev, director of the Centre for Geo-genetics at the University of Copenhagen, has sequenced a 37,000-year-old genome. (Photo: Mikal Schlosser)

An international team of scientists have sequenced the genome of a 37,000-year-old male skeleton found in Kostenki in Russia.

The study, which was recently published in Science, sheds entirely new light on who we are as Europeans.

“From a genetic point of view he’s an European,” says Professor Eske Willerslev, Director of the Centre for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen, who was involved in the new study, and adds:

“Actually, he is closer to Danes, Swedes, Finns and Russians than to Frenchmen, Spaniards and Germans”.

Read more here.

Duivelspack – Mythos Hildebrandslied – Völuspá – Die Weissagung Aus Der Lieder – Edda (Germanic Folk music)

Ask veit ek standa,
heitir Yggdrasill
hár baðmr, ausinn
hvíta auri;
þaðan koma döggvar
þærs í dala falla;
stendr æ yfir grœnn
Urðar brunni.

Þaðan koma meyjar
margs vitandi
þrjár, ór þeim sal
er und þolli stendr;
Urð hétu eina,
aðra Verðandi,
skáru á skíði,
Skuld ina þriðju;
þær lög lögðu,
þær líf kuru
alda börnum,
örlög seggja.

An ash I know it stands
it is named Yggdrasill,
high tree, sprinkled
with white mud
there from come the dews
that fall on the dale,
it stands always green, above
the source of Urdhr.

There from come the maids
much knowing
three, their dwelling
stands under the tree;
Urdh is named one,
the other Verdhandi,
– they notched (scored) wood –
Skuld is the third.
they set up the laws
they decided on the lives
of the children of time (‘the children of man’)
they promulgate fate

The words are ancient Norse. From the “Völuspá”. A Nordic ancient text, that tells of Gods, Heroes and the destiny of the World.

Secret Staves of the Icelandic Witches

witches staves

(Clockwise from top left) 1. Draumstafir – to dream of unfulfilled desires, 2. Svefnthorn – place under someones pillow to make them sleep, 3. Óttastafur – to put fear into an enemy, 4. Lukkustafir – no bad luck or harm will come to anyone wearing it

Source: The Huld Manuscript

Grimoires and secret books of spells have always had the power to ignite the imagination. From Victorian occultists to fans of Harry Potter, a dusty tome filled with strange symbols is a rare and wonderful discovery. A series of finds from Iceland has recently been published and features many “staves” that are now well known amongst fans of Norse lore. But are they really Viking? And what do these books tell us about the people that wrote them?

Icelandic Witchcraft

In order to understand the Icelandic staves, we need to look at their use within Icelandic society.

Most of the symbols and spells appear to be for the use of simple problems in life, from catching a thief, to overthrowing an enemy. Others help heal livestock, whilst others look at cursing the animals of another. We also see charms to help preserve food and ale, staves to bless the bearer with strength or courage, or symbols to help with fishing or prevent death by drowning.

These paint a picture of life in 17th Century Iceland.

Read more here.

Use of Runes Survived Introduction of Christianity

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Church Bell With Runes From Norway

This church bell with runes from about the year 1200 originates from the old stave church in Åmotsdal in Telemark, Eastern Norway. (Photo: National Museum of Denmark/ Wikimedia Commons)

The year is 1023 and Christianity is introduced as the official state religion of Norway by Olav the Holy. Now, Odin and Thor will be replaced by the doctrine of a new God, and pagan runes replaced by the Latin alphabet – in theory.

But the runes were used in Norway until the end of the 1400s. For nearly 500 years after the introduction of Christianity, the Latin and runic alphabet (and religions?) lived side by side.

In some remote places in Scandinavia, runes were used until the 1800s, and in Dalarna in Sweden you could meet people who knew the magical characters as late as the start of the 1900s.

Runes Were Carved

Runic inscriptions tell us how the first…

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