Old Norse (Dǫnsk tunga)



Old Norse, the language of the Vikings, is a North Germanic language once spoken in Scandinavia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and in parts of Russia, France and the British Isles. The modern language most closely related to Old Norse is Icelandic, the written form of which has changed little over the years, while the spoken form has undergone significant changes.

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Rúnatal,  from The Hávamál


Hidden Runes shalt thou seek and interpreted signs,

many symbols of might and power,

by the great Singer painted, by the high Powers fashioned,

graved by the Utterer of gods.


For gods graved Odin, for elves graved Daïn,

Dvalin the Dallier for dwarfs,

All-wise for Jötuns, and I, of myself,

graved some for the sons of men.


Dost know how to write, dost know how to read,

dost know how to paint, dost know how to prove,

dost know how to ask, dost know how to offer,

dost know how to send, dost know how to spend?